BORROWINGS AS ONE OF THE WAYS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING IN POLYETHNIC STATE

Abstract. The article deals with the process of the English language learning through borrowings presented in written and oral forms of communication in Russian and Kazakh. Borrowings, being the result of a long historical interaction of languages, their functioning and mixing occupy a significant place in the vocabulary of many languages. The process of borrowing is uneven and the richness of borrowed vocabulary in the Russian and Kazakh languages can be associated with periods of political and economic activities andcultural life of the country, of people’s. One of the main reasons for borrowed vocabulary in the Kazakh and Russian languages is a tendency to create international terminology, common names of concepts, phenomena of modern science and technological production. It is a well-known fact that a vocabulary of any language is being enriched due to borrowings, which in its turn, becomea nonequivalent lexis. Under nonequivalent vocabulary we mean foreign words and phrases denoting objects, processes and other realities of life, which atthis stage have no equivalent in the target language. So, this lexical innovation is characterized with fixity, as in oral so in written forms of communication in any language with its literary norm.
There described the forms of English vocabulary adaptation on
phonetic and morphological levels of Russian and Kazakh.
Widely used lexical borrowings in these levels can contribute to
their consolidation, as in Russian so in Kazakh languages, thereby enriching oral and written forms. It is known that all languages in their functioning and development are constantly converging with other language systems and accordingly contain foreign language elements in their composition. The presence of the foreign language elements in the Russian and Kazakh languages can be explained with linguistic and extralinguistic factors as well. Moreover, the borrowed vocabulary reflects the facts of ethnic contacts, social, economic and cultural ties between language commitments. It should be noted that under conditions of multiethnicity, borrowed vocabulary can not be «foreign» or «strange» since in multi-ethnic countries, for example Kazakhstan, where there are multiple languages, the borrowed vocabulary does not bring any damage to the further development of the language itself, but rather can be combined with it. The most important characteristic, in our opinion, for borrowing (Russian / Kazakh languages) is awareness that another language (English) can become a source of acquisition of values, scientific achievements or lifestyle. Borrowing as a problem of language adaptation in the conditions of polyethnicity is widely studiedby
domestic and overseas linguists. Since borrowing is an integral part of the process of functioning of the language, one of the main sources of vocabulary richness.
Keywords: the English language, borrowings, mastering, text,
transliteration, communicative requirements.

Gulnara S. Kaziyeva
L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University
Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
e-mail: kaziyeva_gs@enu.kz
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4571-9276

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